A collection of publications on food system topics, authored or co-authored by Center staff and/or partners.

Food insufficiency and Twitter emotions during a pandemic

By Stephan J. Goetz, Connor Heaton, Muhammad Imran, Yuxuan Pan, Zheng Tian, Claudia Schmidt, Umair Qazi, Ferda Ofli, and Prasenjit Mitra. Published in Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, April 3, 2022. In this exploratory study, we used natural language processing to extract sentiments and emotions expressed in food security-related tweets early in the COVID-19 pandemic in U.S. states.

The Role of Community Food Services in Reducing U.S. Food Insufficiency in the COVID-19 Pandemic


Zheng Tian, Claudia Schmidt, and Stephan J. Goetz. Published in Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics as a pre-print, October 2021. Links to PDF of preprint.

The Conversation: More Americans couldn’t get enough to eat in 2020 – a change that hit the middle class hardest

This research brief by NERCRD researchers Zheng Tian and Stephan J. Goetz was published in The Conversation on September 23, 2021. This links to the original article.

Data Report: U.S. Household Food Insufficiency Falls Below Pre-Pandemic Level

NERCRD COVID-19 Data Report 21-02; By Stephan J. Goetz, Yuxuan Pan, Jason Entsminger and Zheng Tian; NERCRD, Penn State University; September 8, 2021.

Female farmers in the United States: Research needs and policy questions

By Claudia Schmidt, Stephan J. Goetz, and Zheng Tian. Published in Food Policy, February 2021.

If You Build Them… Will it Matter? Food Stores' Presence and Perceived Barriers to Purchasing Healthy Foods in the Northeastern U.S.

By Lauren Chenarides, Alessandro Bonanno, Anne Palmer. Published in Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, October 2020.

Small and Minority Farmers' Knowledge and Resource Sharing Networks, and Farm Sales: Findings from Communities in Tennessee, Maryland, and Delaware

By Aditya R. Khanal, Fisseha Tegegne, Stephan J. Goetz, Lan Li, Yicheol Han, Stephan Tubene, and Andy Wetherill. Published in the Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, April 2020.

NERCRD COVID-19 Issues Briefs and Data Reports

The NERCRD is releasing a series of issues and data briefs in response to the COVID-19 crisis, designed to provide information quickly or stimulate discussion. They have not undergone regular peer review. Any opinions are solely those of the authors.

Advances in the Economic Analysis of Food System Drivers and Effects

A collection of papers published in a special issue of Agricultural and Resource Economics Review (Volume 48 - Special Issue 3 - December 2019). These papers were originally presented at a pre-conference workshop organized by the Northeast Center that took place in conjunction with the 2018 Northeastern Agricultural and Resource Economics Association conference.

The Role of Craft Breweries in Expanding (Local) Hop Production

By Elizabeth A. Dobis, Neil Reid, Claudia Schmidt, and Stephan J. Goetz. Published in the Journal of Wine Economics, November 2019.

Excess Competition among Food Hubs


By Rebecca Cleary, Stephan J. Goetz, Dawn Thilmany McFadden, and Houtian Ge. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 44(1):141–163. (Links to PDF.)

Financial Impact of Penn State Extension’s Know Your Numbers Dairy Program

By Aaron Berger, Timothy W. Kelsey, Stephan J. Goetz, Robert C. Goodling, Jr., and Virginia A. Ishler. Published in Journal of Extension, 2019.

Modelling testing mechanism for mitigating genetically modified wheat contamination risks

By Houtian Ge, Stephan Goetz, Miguel Gómez, Richard Gray & James Nolan. Published in the International Journal of Production Research, May 10, 2018.

Optimal locations of fresh produce aggregation facilities in the United States with scale economies

By Houtian Ge, Stephan Goetz, Patrick Canning, and Agnes Perez. Published in International Journal of Production Economics, March 2018.

Farm business financial performance in local foods value chains

By Mary Clare Ahearn, Kathleen Liang, Stephan Goetz. Published in Agricultural Finance Review, February 6, 2018.

Store profitability and public policies to improve food access in non-metro U.S. counties

By Rebecca Cleary, Alessandro Bonanno, Lauren Chenarides, and Stephan J. Goetz. Published in Food Policy, February 2018.

Health Insurance and National Farm Policy

By Shoshanah Inwood, Alana Knudson, Florence A. Becot, Bonnie Braun, Stephan J. Goetz, Jane M. Kolodinsky, Scott Loveridge, Katlyn Morris, Jason Parker, Bob Parsons, Rachel Welborn , and Don E. Albrecht. Published in Choices Magazine, January-March 2018.

Using a market basket to explore regional food systems

By Kate Clancy, Alessandro Bonanno, Patrick Canning, Rebecca Cleary, Zach Conrad, David Fleisher, Miguel Gómez, Timothy Griffin, Ryan Lee, Daniel Kane, Anne Palmer, Kristen Park, Christian J. Peters, Nicole Tichenor. Published in Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, December 2017.

Engaging multiple audiences: Challenges and strategies in complex food systems projects

By Kathryn Z. Ruhf, Kristen Devlin, Kate Clancy, Linda Berlin, Anne Palmer. Published in the Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, December 2017.

Between global and local: Exploring regional food systems from the perspectives of four communities in the U.S. Northeast

By Anne Palmer, Raychel Santo, Linda Berlin, Alessandro Bonanno, Kate Clancy, Carol Giesecke, C. Clare Hinrichs, Ryan Lee, Philip McNab, Sarah Rocker. Published in the Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, December 2017.

Effects of scale economies and production seasonality on optimal hub locations: The case of regional fresh produce aggregation

By Houtian Ge, Patrick Canning, Stephan J. Goetz, and Agnes Perez. Published in Agricultural Economics, December 19, 2017.

Network Analysis of Farmer Groups: A Training Manual for Extension Educators

PDF document, 2.9 MB

Goetz, S.J., Y. Han, E. Hildabridle, L. Li, F. Tegegne, S. Tubene, and A. Wetherill. NERCRD Rural Development Paper No. 57. April 3, 2017. This document presents the content of a curriculum prepared for extension educators and others who are interested in conducting a network analysis of farmer groups.

The Local Foods Resource Mapping Project


By Chance McDavid, Stephan Goetz, Leslie Hossfeld, Steve Turner, Mark Skidmore, Don Albrecht, Stacey McCullough, Amanda P. Perez, Alison Davis, Tim Woods, Jairus Rossi, A. Lee Meyer, Susan Jakes, Becky Bowen, Joanne Lelekacs, Stephen Brown, Mark Apel, Trent Teegerstrom. Abstract published in The Journal of Food Distribution Research, Volume 48(1), 2017. (PDF)

Supply chain complexity and risk mitigation: A hybrid optimization–simulation model

By Houtian Ge, James Nolan, Richard Gray, , Stephan Goetz, and Yicheol Han. Published in the International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 179, September 2016, Pages 228–238. (Access may be limited.)

The Roles of Agricultural Economists in Food System Research

Written by Stephan J. Goetz and published May 31, 2016 in Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. Abstract: Public interest in food systems has grown dramatically, and agricultural economists have important roles to play in contributing to and leading large-scale interdisciplinary studies of the subject. Key topics include understanding food system participants' behaviors and incentives and determining what food systems can and cannot achieve. I review a global food-security project funded by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture that illustrates the interactions between production, distribution, and consumption of food and regional self-reliance, as well as other important areas in which agricultural and regional economists can gainfully apply their tools and methods, including studies of the impacts of local food and network analyses.

Optimal wholesale facilities location within the fruit and vegetables supply chain with bimodal transportation options: An LP-MIP heuristic approach

By Hamideh Etemadnia, Stephan J. Goetz, Patrick Canning, and Mohammad Sadegh Tavallali. European Journal of Operational Research, Volume 244, Issue 2, 16 July 2015, Pages 648–661. (Access may be limited.)

Proceedings from the 2014 "What Works" conference
Havana’s Changing Urban Agriculture Landscape: A Shift to the Right?

For two decades Havana, Cuba, has served as a living laboratory for practitioners and scholars of urban agriculture, particularly in its well-docu­mented role in helping stave off food insecurity during a period of severe resource constraints. Using secondary data, reports by other observers, and structured interviews with 11 of Havana’s urban gardeners, this study examines the challenges and opportunities that urban agriculture has experienced, and will continue to experience, in Cuba’s post-communist society.

Community Gardening in New Hampshire: From the Ground Up


This publication focuses on building communities’ capacity around urban and community gardening and addresses the challenges that arise as people and organizations work together to create and cultivate a community garden. 22 MB PDF

Linkages Between Community-Focused Agriculture, Farm Sales, and Regional Growth (Economic Development Quarterly)

by Jason P. Brown (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City), Stephan J. Goetz (Penn State), Mary C. Ahearn (USDA-ERS), Chyi-lyi (Kathleen) Liang (University of Vermont). Published in the February 2014 edition of Economic Development Quarterly.